Chronic stress sex and gender

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In the present chapter, we use data from two studies of family caregivers to elderly relatives to investigate whether stressful circumstances interact with experiential similarity to produce gender similarity in patterns of support. Taken together, the set of findings demonstrate that gender is important in explaining patterns of support among family caregivers to the elderly. First, women reported a substantially larger number of associates from whom they received general emotional social support than did men; however, there were no important gender differences in the number of associates who provided emotional or instrumental support specific to caregiving.

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Here we review data regarding: i sex differences in behavioral and neural responses to uncontrollable and controllable stressors; ii distinct trajectories of behavioral development and HPA-axis function in male and female rats following adolescent stress exposure; iii normative changes in behavior and dopamine function in early postpartum rats; iv aberrant HPA-axis function and its link to abnormal behaviors in two independent, preclinical mouse models of postpartum depression; and, v data indicating that gender, in addition to sex, is an important determinant of stress reactivity in humans. Based on these findings, we conclude it will be important for future studies to investigate the short and long-term effects of a wide variety of stressors, how these effects may differ according to developmental timing and in relation to gonadal function, the relationship between aberrant HPA-axis activity during the postpartum and mood disorders, and influences of both sex and gender on stress reactivity in humans. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis mediates the neuroendocrine stress response and is mediated by glucocorticoids Smith and Vale, ; Herman et al.

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Skip to search form Skip to main content. Bowman and Neil J. Maclusky and S.

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Women have a life-expectancy advantage over men, but a marked disadvantage with regards to morbidity. This is known as the female—male health-survival paradox in disciplines such as medicine, medical sociology, and epidemiology. Individual differences in physical and mental health are further notably explained by the degree of stress individuals endure, with women being more affected by stressors than men. Beyond biological considerations, we follow with socio-cognitive explanations of gender differences in health and stress.

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Metrics details. Post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD affects men and women differently. Yet the dearth of preclinical research on females leaves a notable gap in understanding the underlying neuropathology of this sex difference.

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Yanhua Lin, Gert J. Studies show that sex plays a role in stress-related depression, with women experiencing a higher vulnerability to its effect. Two major targets of antidepressants are brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element—binding protein CREB.

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Attention, expectant moms. If you want a son, try relaxing. If you have your heart set on a daughter, go ahead and sweat the small stuff.

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IGH is the only organization in the world with a mandate to fund research on gender, sex and health. The mission of IGH is to foster research excellence regarding the influence of gender and sex on the health of women and men throughout life, and to apply these research findings to identify and address pressing health challenges. The production of What a Difference Sex and Gender Make would not have been possible without the immense contributions of many in all stages of the process, including:. It is with great pride that we present this gender, sex and health research casebook, What a Difference Sex and Gender Make.

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Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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With new national funding, UdeM researcher Robert-Paul Juster opens a laboratory to go deeper into how biological sex, sociocultural gender, and sexuality affect people's stress and resilience. For a guy who studies other people's stress for a living, Robert-Paul Juster certainly seems to handle it well himself. So how does he feel about being able to take things to the next level, thanks to a prestigious grant from the Canada Foundation for Innovation's John R.

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